In-text citations briefly identify the reservoir of information in the body text. They correspond to a entire reference introduction at the goal of your newspaper .
APA in-text citations consist of the author ’ randomness last mention and publication year. When citing a specific depart of a reservoir, besides include a page number or scope, for case ( Parker, 2020, p. 67 ) or ( Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41 ) .
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APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes
Parenthetical vs. narrative citations
The in-text citation can be placed in parentheses or naturally integrated into a prison term .
- Parenthetical: There is a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers ( Parker, 2019 ).
- Narrative: parker ( 2019 ) found a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers.
The publication year appears directly after the writer ’ randomness name when using the narrative format. The parenthetic citation can be placed within or at the end of a conviction, just before the period. Check out a full example paragraph with in-text citations .
APA in-text citations with multiple authors
If a shape has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand ( & ) in a parenthetic citation or “ and ” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first generator ’ south last name followed by “ et al. ”, meaning “ and others ” .
Group authors known by their abbreviations ( for example, CDC ) are written in full the inaugural meter and are abbreviated in subsequent citations .
|One author||(Harris, 2020)||Harris (2020)|
|Two authors||(Harris & Cook, 2020)||Harris and Cook (2020)|
|Three or more authors||(Harris et al., 2020)||Harris et al. (2020)|
|Group authors||(Scribbr, 2020)||Scribbr (2020)|
|Abbreviated group author
||(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020)
( CDC, 2020 )
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020)
CDC ( 2020 )
No author, date or page number
|Unknown element||Solution||In-text citation|
|Author||Use the source title.||(Source Title, 2020)|
|Date||Write “n.d.” for “no date”.||(Harris, n.d.)|
|Page number||Use an alternative locator or
omit the page number.
|(Harris, 2020, 03:46) or
If the generator of a reservoir is stranger, try to determine if there is an administration or government creditworthy for creating the content. If so, include its mention in the in-text citation ( and reference submission ) .
The costs of solar energy have decreased by 34% in the past three years ( Tesla, 2020 ).
alternatively, use the generator claim in stead of the author. Italicize the deed if it ’ second italicized in the reference submission ( except for woo cases, which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entrance ). Otherwise, enclose it in duplicate quotation marks .
Apply claim casing capitalization, and shorten long titles. The first parole of the title should always be included so readers can easily locate the represent address entry .
- (“U.S. Flood Risk,” 2015)
- (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017)
If the issue date is strange, write “ n.d. ” ( no date ) in the in-text citation .
(Johnson, n.d .).
No page number (alternative locators)
foliate numbers are only required with direct quotes in APA. If you are quoting from a bring that does not have page numbers ( for example, webpages or YouTube videos ), you can use an option locator, such as :
- (Liu, 2020, 03:26)
- (Johnson, 2019, chapter 3)
- (McCombes, 2016, para. 4)
- (Davis, 2016, slide 15)
- (Flores, 2020, postpone 5
Read more: Microwave Scrambled Eggs
- (Streefkerk, 2020, “ No page number ” department)
note that bible citations always use chapter and verse numbers, even when page numbers are available :
(English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Josh. 2:7)
Multiple sources in one parenthesis
If a statement is supported by multiple sources, the in-text citations can be combined in one digression. Order the sources alphabetically, and separate them with a semicolon .
When citing multiple works from the same writer, list the years of publication separated by a comma .
Several studies have replicated these results ( Brown, 2009 ; Porter, 2004 ; Smith, 2015, 2017 ).
Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations
When in-text citations are equivocal because they correspond to multiple reference entries, apply the solutions outlined in the postpone below .
|Multiple works by the same author in the same year.||Add a lowercase letter after the year.||(Cooper, 2018a)
|Different authors with the same last name.||Include the authors’ initials.||(H. Taylor, 2019)
(B. J. Taylor, 2016)
|Multiple works with 3+ authors that shorten to the same form (i.e., same first author(s) and date).||Include as many names as needed to distinguish the citations.||(Cooper, Lee, et al., 2015)
(Cooper, Ross, et al., 2015)
Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)
If you want to refer to a source that you have found in another source, you should always try to access the original or primary informant .
however, if you can not find the master source, you should cite it through the secondary reservoir that led you to it, using the phrase “ as cited in ” .
( Parker, 1978, as cited in Bloom et al., 2017)
If the publication date of the elementary source is strange, include only the year of publication of the secondary coil reference .
porter (as cited in Johnson, 2017) states that…
lone include a reference entrance for the secondary coil informant, not the primary source .
Citing personal communication
personal communications, such as earphone calls, emails, and interviews, are not included in the address number because readers can ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate entree them. The in-text citation is besides formatted slightly differently .
Include the initials and final appoint of the person you communicated with, the words “ personal communication, ” and the exact date in parentheses .
Sales are declining in the second quarter ( P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2019 ).
General mentions of websites and software
General mentions of a web site or software don ’ t have to be cited with an in-text citation or entry in the reference list. alternatively, incorporate relevant information into the running text .
- The website of Scribbr ( www.scribbr.com ) contains various useful resources.
- Statistical software SPSS ( interpretation 25 ) was used to analyze the data.
Example paragraph with in-text citations
Adapted example paragraph Body visualize issues have been wide associated with social media usage, particularly in young women
. The relation between media depictions and body persona concerns is well-established ; a meta-analysis by
Grabe et al. (2008)
concluded that exposure to mass media is linked to body visualize dissatisfaction among women. several empiric studies have focused on Facebook usage in adolescent girls
(Meier & Gray, 2014; Tiggermann & Slater, 2013)
, while a systematic recapitulation by
Holland and Timmerman (2016)
established a relationship between social network and body image for both women and men .