The Complete Guide to MLA & Citations
What you’ll find in this guide
This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources .
Looking for APA ? Check out the Citation Machine ’ s template on APA format. We besides have resources for Chicago citation dash as well .
How to be a responsible researcher or scholar
Putting together a inquiry project involves searching for information, circulate and analyzing information, collecting data, and repurposing information. Being a responsible research worker requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research plan, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to the authors of the sources you used. Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism .
What is Plagiarism?
plagiarism is the act of using others ’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism. completely copying another individual ’ sulfur work without providing credit to the original generator is a very blatant case of plagiarism. Plagiarism besides occurs when another individual ’ s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is besides plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can flush plagiarize yourself ! Reusing a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it ’ mho newfangled is plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where allow.
What is a Citation?
A citation shows the reviewer of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in the consistency of a plan when you add a quote to your project. Citations are besides included in the torso when you ’ ra paraphrase another individual ’ sulfur information. These citations in the body of a inquiry paper are called in-text citations. They are found directly following to the data that was borrowed and are very brief to avoid causing distraction while reading a project. These brief citations include the last mention of the author and a page number. Scroll down for an in-depth explanation and examples of MLA in-text citations .
In-text citations provide us with a brief estimate as to where you found your information, though they normally do n’t include the title and early components. Look on the final page of a research undertaking to find accomplished citations .
complete citations are found on what MLA calls a works-cited list, which is sometimes called an MLA bibliography. All sources that were used to develop a inquiry project are found on the works-cited list. arrant citations are besides created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text. complete citations include the author ’ sulfur name, the entitle, publisher, class published, page numbers, URLs, and a few early pieces of information .
Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks ? Need an MLA format web site or reserve citation ? Visit Citation Machine.net ! Our citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation web site, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click hera to see more styles .
Why Does it Matter?
Citing your sources is an extremely significant component of your research stick out. It shows that you ’ re a responsible research worker and that you located allow and reputable sources that support your thesis or title. In addition, if your work ends up being posted on-line or in print, there is a chance that others will use your inquiry project in their own work !
Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations .
How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher
What is MLA format?
The Modern Language Association is an arrangement that was created to develop guidelines on everything lyric and literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research composition layouts. In addition, they have english and foreign lyric committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual league. They are not connected with this guide, but the data here reflects the association ’ second rules for formatting papers and citations .
What are citations?
The Modern Language Association is creditworthy for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly adduce sources to prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. “ Liberal arts ” is a across-the-board term used to describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social sciences such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities focuses specifically on subjects related to languages, artwork, philosophy, religion, music, dramaturgy, literature, and ethics .
Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for the free arts and humanities fields, many early subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format .
What’s the difference between a bibliography and a works-cited list?
great question. The two terms cause a set of confusion and are systematically misused not entirely by students but educators adenine well ! Let ’ s get down with what the two words mean .
A bibliography displays the sources the writer used to gain background cognition on the topic and besides inquiry it in-depth. Before starting a research project, you might read up on the topic in websites, books, and other sources. You might even dive a bit cryptic to find more data elsewhere. All of these sources you used to help you learn about the subject would go in an MLA format bibliography. You might even include other sources that relate to the subject .
A works-cited list displays all of the sources that were mentioned in the writing of the actual composition or project. If a quote was taken from a source and placed into a research paper, then the wax citation goes on the works-cited number .
Both the works-cited list and bibliography go at the end of a wallpaper. Most teachers do not expect students to hand in both a bibliography AND a works-cited list. Teachers by and large expect to see a works-cited number, but sometimes mistakenly call it a bibliography. If you ’ ra not certain what your teacher expects, a page in MLA bibliography format, a works-cited list, or both, ask for guidance .
Why do we use this MLA style?
These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations were developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and understand the different components of a source. By looking at an MLA citation, we can see who the writer is, the title of the generator, when it was published, and early identifiable pieces of information .
Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the diverse components of a source if we didn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate all follow the lapp guidelines ! not only would it make it difficult to understand the beginning that was used, but it would besides make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process aides us in understanding a research worker ’ sulfur sources .
How is the new version different than previous versions?
This quotation manner has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. The MLA Handbook is presently in its 9th edition .
The newly version expands upon standards previously set in the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, including the kernel elements. The structure of citations remains the lapp, but some format guidance and terminology have changed .
- DOI numbers are now formatted as https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxx.xxxx.xxxx
- Seasons in publishing daters are lowercased: spring 2020
- The term “optional elements” is now “supplemental elements”
- “Narrative in-text citations” are called “citations in prose”
In addition, new information was added on the postdate :
- Hundreds of works-cited-list entries
- MLA formatting for papers
- Punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics of prose
- Chapter on inclusive language
- Notes (bibliographic and content)
For more information on MLA 9, snap here .
A Deeper Look at Citations
What do they look like?
There are two types of citations. The foremost is a full, or accomplished, citation. These are found at the end of research projects. These citations are normally listed in alphabetic arrange by the generator ’ randomness end names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves .
Full citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format :
% % last diagnose of the author, First name of the writer. “ Source ’ s Title. ” Container ’ s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the appoint of the publisher, the date the beginning was published, the placement where individuals can find the source themselves ( normally a DOI, URL, or page range ) .
There are times when extra information is added into the full quotation .
not certain how to transfer the information from your generator into your citation ? Confused about the term, “ containers ” ? See below for information and complete explanations of each quotation part .
The second type of quotation, called an “ in-text citation, ” is included in the main separate, or body, of a plan when a research worker uses a quote or paraphrases information from another reservoir. See the next section to find out how to create in-text citations .
What are in-text citations?
As stated above, in-text citations are included in the independent contribution of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the soundbox of a project for readers to promptly gain an idea as to where we found the information .
These in-text citations are found immediately following to the quotation mark or paraphrased information. They contain a small choice morsel of the information found in the regular MLA citation. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a undertaking, on the works-cited list .
here ’ s what a distinctive in-text citation looks like :
In the book The Joy Luck Club, the mother uses a huge measure of chinese wisdom to explain the earth and people ’ south temperaments. She states, “ Each person is made of five elements…. besides much fire and you have a bad pique … besides little wood and you bent besides promptly … excessively much water and you flowed in besides many directions ” ( Tan 31 ) .
This specific in textbook citation, ( Tan 31 ), is called an MLA parenthetic citation because the generator ’ south name is in parentheses. It ’ second included therefore the lector sees that we are quoting something from foliate 31 in Tan ’ s record. The complete, even citation international relations and security network ’ thymine included in the chief part of the project because it would be besides distracting for the lector. We want the reader to focus on our make and research, not get caught up on our sources .
here ’ s another manner to cite in the text :
In Tan ’ s novel The Joy Luck Club, the mother uses a huge come of chinese wisdom to explain the worldly concern and people ’ mho temperaments. She states, “ Each person is made of five elements … besides much fire and you have a bad chasten … besides little wood and you bent besides promptly … excessively much water system and you flowed in besides many directions ” ( 31 ) .
If the reader would like to see the generator ’ s broad information, and possibly locate the beginning themselves, they can refer to the last partially of the undertaking to find the regular citation .
The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this :
% % Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Penguin, 1989, p. 31 .
Notice that the first word in the wide quotation ( Tan ) matches the “ Tan ” used in the body of the plan. It ’ mho significant to have the beginning word of the full citation match the terminus used in the text. Why ? It allows readers to easily find the wide citation on the works-cited list .
If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a line number ( function occupation or lines ), paragraph count ( use the abbreviation par. or pars. ), sections ( securities and exchange commission. or secs. ), or chapters ( ch. or chs. ). entirely use these other terms if they are actually labeled on the source. If it specifically says on the beginning, “ Section 1, ” for exercise, then it is acceptable to use “ second. 1 ” in the in-text citation .
If there are no numbers to help readers locate the demand point in the source, alone include the generator ’ randomness end name .
To determine how to create in-text citations for more than one writer, no authors, or bodied authors, refer to the “ Authors ” section below .
More about quotations and how to cite a quote:
- Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points. The majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas.
- Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same.
- It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing.
model from a movie :
Dorothy stated, “ Toto, ” then looked up and took in her surroundings, “ I ’ ve a feel we ’ re not in Kansas anymore ” ( Wizard of Oz ) .
- The entire paper should be double-spaced, including quotes.
- If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source.
- Start the quote on the next line, half an inch from the left margin.
- Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote.
- Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source.
- If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, indent the beginning of the paragraphs after the first one an additional half an inch from the left margin.
- Add your in-text citation after the final period of the block quote. Do not add an additional period after the parenthetical citation.
While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto read :
“ Cause I could see you, ” Colon said matter-of-factly. “ I went up and out of my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor of the church working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in a little room by yourself, praying ; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone. ” ( Burpo xxi )
How to create a paraphrase:
As stated above, the majority of your paper should be your own write and ideas. It ’ s acceptable to include quotes, but they shouldn ’ t crowd your wallpaper. If you ’ re finding that you ’ re using excessively many quotes in your newspaper, consider adding paraphrases. When you reiterate a piece of information from an outside reference in your own words, you create a paraphrase .
here ’ s an case :
Readers discover in the very first conviction of Peter Pan that he doesn ’ metric ton grow up ( Barrie 1 ) .
What paraphrases are :
- Recycled information in the paper writer’s own words and writing style.
- They’re still references! Include an in-text citation next to the paraphrased information.
What paraphrases are not :
- A copy and pasted sentence with a few words substituted for synonyms.
Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used?
Footnotes and endnotes are completely acceptable to use in this style. Use a footnote or endnote if :
- Adding additional information will help the reader understand the content. This is called a content note.
- You need to cite numerous sources in one small section of your writing. Instead of clogging up a small paragraph with in-text citations (which could cause confusion for the reader), include a footnote or endnote. This is called a bibliographic note.
Keep in mind that whether you choose to include in-text citations or footnotes/endnotes, you need to besides include a full moon reference point on the MLA format works-cited list .
Content note example:
even Maurice Sendak ’ mho work ( the genius behind Where the Wild Things Are and numerous other popular children ’ mho picture books ) can be found on the banned books list. It seems as though cipher is granted unsusceptibility. 1
- In the Night Kitchen’s main character is nude on numerous pages. Problematic for most is not the nudity of the behind, but the frontal nudity.
% % Sendak, Maurice. In The Night Kitchen. Harper Collins, 1996 .
Bibliographic note example:
Dahl had a unmanageable childhood. Both his don and sister passed away when he was a toddler. He was then sent away by his beget to boarding school ( de Castella ) .1
- Numerous books, such as Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, and The BFG, all feature characters with absent or difficult parents.
MLA Works Cited:
Include 4 wax citations for : de Castella ’ south article, Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, and The BFG .
Don ’ metric ton forget to create entire, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your stick out .
If you need help with in-text and parenthetical expression citations, CitationMachine.net can help. Our MLA citation generator is simple and comfortable to use !
Common Knowledge: What Is It and How Will It Affect My Writing?
Footnotes, endnotes, references, proper structure. We know it ’ s a set. thankfully, you don ’ t have to include a reference for EVERY slice of information you add to your composition. You can forget about including a address when you share a piece of common cognition .
common cognition is information that most people know. For exemplar, these are a few facts that are considered coarse cognition :
- The Statue of Liberty is located in New York City
- Tokyo is the capital of Japan
- Romeo and Juliet is a play written by William Shakespeare
- English is the language most people speak in England
- An elephant is an animal
We could go on and on. When you include common cognition in your wallpaper, omit a character. One less thing to worry about, proper ?
Before you start adding tons of common cognition occurrences to your composition to ease the burden of creating references, we need to stop you justly there. Remember, the finish of a research paper is to develop new information or cognition. You ’ rhenium expected to seek out information from outside sources and analyze and distribute the information from those sources to form fresh ideas. Using merely park cognition facts in your writing involves absolutely zero research. It ’ sulfur okay to include some common cognition facts here and there, but do not make it the core of your paper .
If you ’ rhenium uncertain if the fact you ’ rhenium including is coarse cognition or not, it doesn ’ t hurt to include a reference. There is no such matter as being excessively responsible when it comes to writing and citing .
Wikipedia – Yay or Nay?
If you ’ re wondering whether it ’ s o to use Wikipedia in your project, the answer is, it depends .
If Wikipedia is your go-to source for promptly data on a topic, you ’ re not alone. Chances are, it ’ second one of the beginning websites to appear on your results foliate. It ’ s used by tons of people, it ’ sulfur easily accessible, and it contains millions of concise articles. then, you ’ re probably wondering, “ What ’ s the problem ? ”
The publish with Wikipedia is that it ’ s a user-generated locate, meaning data is constantly added and modified by register users. Who these users are and their expertness is slightly of a mystery. The truth is anyone can register on the locate and make changes to articles .
Knowing this makes some flinch, specially educators and librarians, since the cogency of the data is questionable. however, some people argue that because Wikipedia is a user-generated site, the residential district of registered users serve as “ watchdogs, ” ensuring that information is valid. In summation, references are included at the bed of each article and serve as validation of credibility. furthermore, Wikipedia lets readers know when there ’ s a trouble with an article. Warnings such as “ this article needs clarification, ” or “ this article needs references to prove its robustness ” are shared with the reader, therefore promoting foil .
If you choose to reference a Wikipedia article in your research project, and your teacher or professor says it ’ s okay, then you must reference it in your project. You would treat it just as you would with any other web source .
however, you may want to rather consider locating the original source of the information. This should be fairly easy to do thanks to the references at the bottomland of each article .
Specific Components of a Citation
This section explains each individual part of the citation, with examples for each section for wide citations and in-text citations .
Name of the author
The writer ’ second list is normally the first item listed in the MLA quotation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the author ’ s first name ( and middle list if applicable ) is at the end. A period closes this information .
here are two examples of how an writer ’ randomness list can be listed in a fully citation :
couple, Mark .
Poe, Edgar Allan .
( Author ’ s last appoint page number ) or Author ’ s concluding appoint … ( page ) .
Wondering how to format the author ’ second list when there are two authors working jointly on a beginning ? When there are two authors that work together on a reference, the generator names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Place their names in this format :
Author 1 ’ randomness last name, First mention, and Author 2 ’ second First Name stopping point name .
Here are two examples of how to cite two authors:
Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley .
Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox .
( Author 1 ’ sulfur final name and Author 2 ’ second last name page number ) or Author 1 ’ mho last mention and Author 2 ’ randomness last name … ( page ) .
There are many times when three or more authors knead together on a beginning. This much happens with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks .
To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format:
Author 1 ’ second last name, First name, et alabama .
As you can see, only include the first gear generator ’ south name. The other authors are accounted for by using “ et al. ” In Latin, et alabama. is translated to “ and others. ” If using the Citation Machine quotation generator, this abbreviation is mechanically added for you .
Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors:
% % Warner, Ralph, et aluminum. How to Buy a House in California. Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009 .
( Author 1 ’ south last appoint et alabama. page number )
Is there no author listed on your beginning ? If so, exclude the writer ’ mho data from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the reference .
For in-text: Use the entitle of the source in parentheses. Place the title in italics if the source stands entirely. Books and films stand alone. If it ’ mho part of a larger whole, such as a chapter in an edit book or an article on a web site, place the deed in quotation marks without italics .
( Back to the future )
( “ Citing And Writing ” )
Read more: Microwave Scrambled Eggs
Other in-text structures:
Authors with the same last name in your newspaper ? MLA essay format requires the consumption of first initials in-text in this scenario .
Ex: ( J. Silver 45 )
Are you citing more than one generator by the lapp author ? For exemplar, two books by Ernest Hemingway ? Include the deed in-text .
Example: ( Hemingway, For Whom The Bell Tolls 12 ) .
Are you citing a film or song ? Include a timestamp in the format of hours : minutes : seconds. ( Back to the Future 00:23:86 )
Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post ? If this is the lawsuit, in an MLA format newspaper, you are allowed to start the citation with the writer ’ second handle, username, or screen name .
Here is an example of how to cite a tweet:
% % @ CarlaHayden. “ I ’ m so honored to talk about digital access at @ UMBCHumanities. We want to parcel the @ libraryofcongress collection. ” Twitter, 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 post meridiem, twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521 .
While most citations begin with the name of the generator, they do not inevitably have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your generator may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on person other than the author, it is satisfactory to place that person ’ south name first in the citation. If you ’ re using the MLA works cited generator at Citation Machine.net, you can choose the individual ’ sulfur role from a drop-down box .
For exemplar, let ’ s say that in your research stick out, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio ’ second performances as an actor. You ’ re quoting a line from the movie Titanic in your project, and you ’ re creating a accomplished citation for it in the works-cited list .
It is acceptable to show the lector that you ’ ra focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio ’ sulfur work by citing it like this in the MLA works-cited list :
% % DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic. Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997 .
Notice that when citing an person other than the writer, home the individual ’ s character after their identify. In this font, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer .
This is much done with emended books, besides. Place the editor program ’ south list first ( in turn back order ), add a comma, and then add the word editor program .
If you ’ re even confused about how to place the authors together in a citation, the tools at CitationMachine.net can help ! Our web site is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks !
Titles and containers
The titles are written as they are found on the reference and in claim form, meaning the authoritative words start with a capital .
Here’s an example of a properly written title:
hardheaded Digital Libraries : Books, Bytes, and Bucks .
Wondering whether to place your deed in italics or quotation marks ? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent informant, place the title in italics. If the entitle is part of a larger whole, place the deed of the source in quotation marks and the source it is from in italics .
When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics .
however, when citing region of a generator, such as an article on a web site, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the function is written with citation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics .
here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers .
To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall, cite it as:
% % Pink Floyd. The Wall. Columbia, 1979 .
To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd’s album in MLA formatting, cite it as:
% % Pink Floyd. “ Another Brick in the Wall ( Part I ). ” The Wall, Columbia, 1979, path 3 .
To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as:
% % Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories. Little Brown, 2016 .
To cite a specific story or chapter in the book, cite it as:
% % Colfer, Chris. “ little Red Riding Hood. ” The Land of Stories, Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65 .
More about containers
From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone, or they can sit in a container. many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how ? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container ? It ’ s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is crucial to account for all containers, so readers are able to locate the accurate source themselves .
When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the overhaul that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix .
If your beginning sits in more than one container, the information about the moment container is found at the end of the citation .
Use the follow format to cite your source with multiple containers :
% % last name of the generator, First name of the generator. “ Source ’ s Title. ” Container ’ s Title, roles and names of any early individuals who helped contribute to the beginning, the translation of the informant, any numbers associated with the informant, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves ( normally a URL or page scope ). Title of Second Container, roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the diagnose of the irregular container ’ mho publisher, the go steady the second container was published, location .
If the reference has more than two containers, add on another entire section at the end for each container .
not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most probably be omitted from your citations. alone include the elements that will help your readers locate the beginning themselves .
here is an case of a citation for a scholarly journal article found in a database. This informant has two containers : the journal itself is one container, and the web site it sits on is the other .
% % Zanetti, Francois. “ Curing with Machine : medical electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris. ” Technology and Culture, vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. project Muse, muse.jhu.edu/article/520280 .
If you ’ re hush confused about containers, the Citation Machine MLA reference generator can help ! MLA citing is easier when using the tools at CitationMachine.net .
many sources have people besides the author who contribute to the source. If your inquiry project focuses on an extra individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation .
To include another individual in the citation, after the claim, place the function of the individual, the bible “ by, ” and then their name in standard order .
If the name of the contributor comes after a time period, capitalize the beginning letter in the function of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the beginning letter in the role of the individual is lowercased .
Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the illustrator included:
% % Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos. Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012 .
The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation .
If the generator that you ’ re citing states that it is a specific translation or version, this information is placed in the “ versions ” section of the citation .
When including a number edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. besides, abbreviate the word “ version ” to “ erectile dysfunction. ”
Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition:
% % Koger, Gregory. “ Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State. ” Congress Reconsidered, edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236. Google Books, books.google.com/books ? id=b7gkLlSEeqwC & lpg=PP1 & dq=10th % 20edition & pg=PR6 # v=onepage & q=10th % 20edition & f=false .
many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number different than the date, foliate numbers, or editions, include this information in the “ numbers ” part of the quotation. For MLA citing, this includes bulk and/or issue numbers ( use the abbreviations vol. and no. ), episode numbers, traverse numbers, or any early numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN ( International Standard Book Numbers ) in the citation .
It is authoritative to include the name of the publisher ( the organization that created or published the informant ), indeed that readers can locate the claim source themselves .
Include publishers for all sources except periodicals. besides, for websites, exclude this data when the mention of the publisher matches the name of the web site. furthermore, the name of the publisher is frequently excluded from the citation for moment containers, since the publisher of the second container is not inevitably creditworthy for the creation or product of the source ’ second capacity .
issue dates are extremely important to include in citations. They allow the lector to understand when sources were published. They are besides used when readers are attempting to locate the informant themselves .
Dates can be written in MLA in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as :
Day Mo. year
Mo. Day, year
Whichever format you decide to use, use the like format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each quotation .
While it isn ’ triiodothyronine necessity to include the wax date for all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the most common sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves .
Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date ? Use the date that is most applicable to your research .
The location by and large refers to the seat where the readers can find the beginning. This includes foliate ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, magnetic disk numbers, or even cities and towns .
You can normally leave out hypertext transfer protocol : // or hypertext transfer protocol : // from URLs unless you want to hyperlink them. For DOIs, use hypertext transfer protocol : // or hypertext transfer protocol : // before the DOI : hypertext transfer protocol : //doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxx.xxxx.xxxx .
For page numbers, when citing a beginning found on only one page, function p .
Example: p. 6 .
When citing a reservoir that has a foliate image, use pp. and then add the page numbers .
Example: pp. 24-38 .
Since the localization is the final examination while of the citation, place a menstruation at the end. When it comes to URLs, many students wonder if the links in citations should be live or not. If the paper is being shared electronically with a teacher and other readers, it may be helpful to include be links. If you ’ re not certain whether to include live links or not, ask your teacher or professor for guidance .
Looking for an on-line tool to do the work for you ? Citation Machine citing tools could help ! Our site is childlike ( and fun ! ) to use .
Need some more help ? There is farther good data here .
Common Citation Examples
ALL sources use this format :
% % last identify of the writer, First name of the writer. “ Source ’ s Title. ” Container ’ s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the reference, the interpretation of the source, any numbers associated with the informant, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the placement where individuals can find the beginning themselves ( normally a URL or page rate ). *Title of Second Container, roles and names of any other contributors, the translation of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the appoint of the moment container ’ sulfur publisher, the date the irregular container was published, placement .
*If the generator does not have a second container, exclude this last separate of the citation .
Remember, the Citation Machine MLA formatter can help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine pages to learn more .
How to Format a Paper
When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific MLA newspaper format guidelines to follow .
- Use paper that is 8½-by-11 inch in size. This is the standard size for copier and printer paper.
- Use high quality paper.
- Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper.
- While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor.
Which font is acceptable to use?
- Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters.
- Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options.
- Use 12-point size font.
Should I double-space the paper, including citations?
- Double-space the entire paper.
- There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading.
- Place a double space between the heading and the title.
- Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay.
- The works-cited list should be double-spaced as well. All citations are double-spaced.
Justification & Punctuation
- Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or flush, against the left margin.
- New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin.
- Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin.
- Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an indent.
- Add one space after all punctuation marks.
Heading & Title
- Include a proper heading and title
- The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins:
- Your full name
- Your teacher or professor’s name
- The course number
- Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper
- Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017
- The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters.
- Number all pages, including the very first page and the works-cited list.
- Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin.
- Include your last name to the left of the page number. Example: Jacobson 4
hera ’ s an model to provide you with a ocular :
If you need help with prison term structure or grammar, check out our paper checker. The newspaper checker will help to check every noun, verb, and adjectival. If there are words that are misspelled or out of rate, the composition checker will suggest edits and provide recommendations .
MLA Works Cited:
- The works-cited list should be on its own page at the end of the paper.s
- If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a “hanging indent”).
- For more information on the works-cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below.
How to Create a Title Page
According to the Modern Language Association ’ s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is unnecessary to create or include an individual title page, or MLA blanket page, at the begin of a research project. rather, follow the directions above, under “ Heading & Title, ” to create a proper drift. This head is featured at the top of the foremost page of the research paper or research assignment .
If your teacher or professor does in fact want or ask for an MLA title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper style page. You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university .
How to Make a Works Cited Page
The MLA Works Cited foliate is by and large found at the end of a research newspaper or visualize. It contains a list of all the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the works-cited number to match the Modern Language Association ’ sulfur guidelines .
- The “Works Cited” page has its own page at the end of a research project.
- Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). The “Works Cited” page has the final page number for the project.
- Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it in MLA “Work Cited.”
- The title of the page (either “Works Cited” or “Work Cited”) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document.
- Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation.
- Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the citation does not include the author’s name. Ignore “A,” “An,” and “The” if the title begins with these words.)
- If there are multiple citations by the same author, place them in chronological order by the date published.
- Also, instead of writing the author’s name twice in both citations, use three hyphens.
% % Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Random House, 2009 .
% % — -. Gather together in My Name. Random House, 1974 .
- All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is long and rolls onto a second or third line, indent the lines below the first line half an inch from the left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. If you’re using our MLA citation machine, we’ll format each of your references with a hanging indent for you.
% % Wai-Chung, Ho. “ political Influences on Curriculum Content and musical entail : Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997. ” Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, vol. 22, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online, search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78 ? accountid=35635 .
- MLA “Works Cited” pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary. If you have only one source to cite, do not place the one citation below the text of your paper. In MLA, a “Work Cited” page is still created for that individual citation.
here ’ s a sample paper to give you an idea of what an MLA paper could look like. Included at the end is an MLA “ Works Cited ” page example .
## Adding Images, Figures, Tables, and Musical Scores
# # Adding Images, Figures, Tables, and Musical Scores Looking to add a relevant effigy, trope, postpone, or melodious score to your paper ? here ’ s the easy way to do it, while following guidelines set away by the Modern Language Association :
- Place the image, figure, table, or music close to where it’s mentioned in the text.
- Provide source information and any additional notes directly below the image, figure, table, or music.
- Label the table as “Table” followed by an arabic numeral such as “1.” Table 1 is the table closest to the beginning of the paper. The next table mentioned in the text would be Table 2, and so on.
- Create a title for the table and place it below the label. Capitalize all important words.
- The label (Table 1) and the title should be flush against the left margin.
- Double-space everything.
- A figure can be a map, photograph, painting, pie chart, or any other type of image.
- Create a label and place it below the figure. The figure first mentioned in the text of the project is either “Figure 1” or “Fig 1.” Though figures are usually abbreviated to “Fig.” Choose one style and use it consistently. The next mentioned figure is “Figure 2” or “Fig. 2.”, and so on.
- Place a caption next to the label. If all of the source information is included in the caption, there isn’t a need to replicate that information in the works-cited list.
Here is the text description of the MLA figure example.
MLA Final Checklist
Think you ’ re through ? We know this guide covered a LOT of data, so before you hand in that appointment, here ’ s a checklist to help you determine if you have everything you need :
_ Are both in-text and full citations included in the project ? Remember, for every while of outside data included in the text, there should be a match in-text citation next to it. Include the wax citation at the end, on the “ Works Cited ” page .
_ Are all citations, both in-text and fully, properly formatted in MLA style ? If you ’ ra diffident, try out our citation generator !
_ Is your wallpaper double-spaced in its entirety with one edge margins ?
_ Do you have a run header on each page ? ( Your end name followed by the page number )
_ Did you use a font that is easy to read ?
_ Are all citations on the MLA format works-cited list in alphabetic order ?
Our plagiarism checker scans for any accidental instances of plagiarism. It scans for grammar and spell errors, besides. If you have an adverb, preposition, or conjunction that needs a flimsy adaptation, we may be able to suggest an edit .
Common Ways Students Accidentally Plagiarize
We spoke a bit about plagiarism at the begin of this guide. Since you ’ re a responsible research worker, we ’ rhenium sure you didn ’ thyroxine intentionally plagiarize any portions of your paper. Did you know students and scholars sometimes unintentionally plagiarize ? unfortunately, it happens more frequently than you probably realize. fortunately, there are ways to prevent accidental plagiarism and even some on-line tools to help !
here are some common ways students unintentionally plagiarize in their research papers and assignments :
1. Poor Paraphrasing
In the “ How to create a paraphrase ” section towards the acme of this page, we plowshare that paraphrases are “ recycle information, in the paper writer ’ s own words and writing style. ” If you attempt to paraphrase a few lines of text and it ends up looking and sounding excessively close to the original author ’ sulfur words, it ’ s a poor people paraphrase and considered plagiarism .
2. Incorrect Citations
If you cite something falsely, even if it ’ south done by chance, it ’ sulfur plagiarism. Any wrong information in a character, such as the wrong writer mention or the incorrect title, results in plagiarism .
3. Forgetting to include quotation marks
When you include a quotation in your wallpaper, you must place citation marks around it. Failing to do then results in plagiarism.
Read more: How to Make Friendship Bracelets
If you ’ re worry about accidental plagiarism, try our Citation Machine Plus essay tool. It scans for grammar, but it besides checks for any instances of accidental plagiarism. It ’ randomness bare and user-friendly, making it a bang-up choice for stress-free paper edit and print .
Updated June 15, 2021
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an amazing school librarian since 2006 and is an technical in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a overlord ’ s degree in library and information skill and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012 .