Riccardo Muti, (Italian: [rikˈkardo ˈmuːti]; born 28 July 1941) is an Italian conductor. He currently holds two music directorships, at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and at the Orchestra Giovanile Luigi Cherubini. Muti has previously held posts at the Maggio Musicale in Florence, the Philharmonia Orchestra in London, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Teatro alla Scala in Milan, and the Salzburg Whitsun Festival.
A prolific recording artist, Muti has received numerous honours and awards, including two Grammy Awards. He is especially associated with the music of Giuseppe Verdi. Among the world’s leading conductors, in a 2015 Bachtrack poll, he was ranked by music critics as the world’s fifth best living conductor.
Childhood và education
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was born in Naples but he spent his early childhood in Molfetta, near Bari, in the long region of Apulia on Italy’s southern Adriatic coast. His father, Domenico, was a pathologist in Molfetta, as well as an amateur singer và great âm nhạc lover ; his mother, Gilda, a reserved & severe Neapolitan woman with five children. [ 2 ] [ ba ]Muti graduated from Liceo classico ( Classical Lyceum ) Vittorio Emanuele II in Naples, then studied piano at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella under Vincenzo Vitale ; here Muti was awarded a diploma cum laude. He was subsequently awarded a diploma in Composition và Conducting by the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory, Milan, where he studied with the composer Bruno Bettinelli và the conductor Antonino Votto. He has also studied composition with Nino Rota, whom he considers a mentor. He was unanimously awarded first place by the jury of the ” Guido Cantelli Competition for Conductors ” in Milan in 1967 và became, the next year, principal conductor và âm nhạc director of the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, a post he held for eleven years .
Since 1971 he has been a frequent conductor of operas & concerts at the Salzburg Festival, where he is particularly known for his Mozart opera performances. From 1972 Muti regularly conducted the Philharmonia Orchestra in London & in 1973 he was appointed its principal conductor, succeeding Otto Klemperer. [ bốn ]In 1986, Muti became principal conductor of the Filarmonica della Scala, Milan, with which in 1988 he received the Viotti d’Oro và toured Europe. In 1989 he conducted a live performance of Mozart’s Don Giovanni that was recorded on a DVD. In 1991, after twelve years as âm nhạc director, he announced his resignation from the Philadelphia Orchestra, effective at the over of the 1991 – 1992 season .In 1995 he was the president of the jury of the International Composing Competition ” 2 Agosto “. [ 5 ]
Berlin & Vienna
Muti has been a regular guest of the Berlin Philharmonic & the Vienna Philharmonic. In 1996, he conducted the Vienna Philharmonic during Vienna Festival Week và on tour phệ Nhật Bản, Korea, Hong Kong and Germany ; he most recently toured with the Vienna Philharmonic béo Nhật Bản in 2008. Muti has also led the orchestra’s Vienna New Year’s Concert on 6 occasions lớn date : in 1993, 1997, 2 nghìn, 2004, 2018, & 2021. [ 6 ]
Work in opera
Apart from his work at Milan’s Teatro alla Scala, where he was music director for 19 years, Muti has led operatic performances with the Philadelphia Orchestra and productions in the principal opera houses of Rome (from 1969), Ravenna, Vienna, London (from 1977), Munich (from 1979), and, finally, in 2010, New York. His work with the Vienna State Opera has included Aida in 1973, La forza del destino in 1974, Norma in 1977, Rigoletto in 1983, Così fan tutte in 1996 and 2008, Don Giovanni in 1999, and The Marriage of Figaro in 2001.
Appearances in Salzburg
Salzburg Festival President Helga Rabl-Stadler with Riccardo Muti, 14 August năm nay
Muti first conducted at the Salzburg Festival in 1971 with Donizetti’s Don Pasquale (staged by Ladislav Stros). Muti has subsequently appeared regularly at the Salzburg Festival, conducting both numerous concerts with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and opera productions, such as Così fan tutte (staged by Michael Hampe) from 1982 to 1985 and from 1990 to 1991, La clemenza di Tito (staged by Peter Brenner) in 1988 and 1989, Don Giovanni (staged by Michael Hampe) in 1990 and 1991, La traviata (staged by Lluis Pasqual, and designed by Luciano Damiani) in 1995, Die Zauberflöte in 2005 (staged by Graham Vick) and 2006 (staged by Pierre Audi, stage designed by Karel Appel), Otello (staged by Stephen Langridge) in 2008, Moise et Pharaon (staged by Jürgen Flimm) in 2009, and Orfeo ed Euridice (staged by Dieter Dorn) in 2010. In 2011, Muti conducted a new production of Verdi’s Macbeth, which was directed by Peter Stein. For the 2017 Salzburg Festival, he conducted Aida, directed by Shirin Neshat. Muti also owns a residence close to Salzburg.
From 2007 to 2011, Muti was the principal conductor at Salzburg’s Whitsun Festival. He conducted productions of rare Italian operas from the 18th century, and concerts with his Luigi Cherubini Youth Orchestra.
Muti with Vladimir Putin after a performance in Moscow, 1 June 2 nghìn
Riccardo Muti Italian Opera Academy
In July năm ngoái, Riccardo Muti’s desire béo devote even more phệ the training of young musicians was realised : the first edition of the Riccardo Muti Italian Opera Academy for young conductors, répétiteurs và singers took place with great acclaim at Teatro Alighieri in Ravenna & talented young musicians, as well as an audience of music-lovers from around the world participated. The Academy has as purpose lớn pass on lớn young musicians Riccardo Muti’s experience và lessons và lớn make the audience understand in its đầy đủ complexity the path Khủng accomplish an opera production. [ tám ]
In the United States
In the United States, from 1980 Khủng 1992 Muti was âm nhạc director of the Philadelphia Orchestra, which he led on numerous international tours. In 1979, he was appointed its âm thanh director và, in 1992, conductor laureate. Muti stated that his approach was béo remain faithful phệ the intent of the composer. This meant a change from applying the lush ” Philadelphia Sound, ” created by his predecessors Eugene Ormandy & Leopold Stokowski, bự all repertoire ; however, many of his recordings with that orchestra largely seem mập do away with its hallmark sound, even in the works of such composers as Tchaikovsky, Brahms, & other high romantics. His sonic changes bự the orchestra remain controversial. Some felt he turned it into a generic-sounding institution with a lean sound much favored by modern recording engineers. Others believe Muti uncovered the true intention of the works, which had been covered in a silky sheen by Muti’s predecessor. Since his departure from Philadelphia, he has made very few guest conducting appearances with the Philadelphia Orchestra, most recently in 2005. [ 9 ]Muti had been a regular & popular guest conductor with the New York Philharmonic. The orchestra’s musicians had reportedly been interested – towards the over of the tenures of Kurt Masur và Lorin Maazel, & before Muti took the Chicago post – in having the conductor as their âm thanh director, but Muti stated that he had no wish lớn take on the position. [ 10 ] [ 11 ]Muti had first guest-conducted the Chicago Symphony Orchestra ( CSO ) in 1973 at the Ravinia Festival, but did not return as a guest conductor with the CSO until 2007. [ 12 ] In May 2008, the CSO named Muti its next âm nhạc director, effective with the 2010 – 2011 season, with an initial contract of five years. His most recent contract extension, announced in January 2018, is through the 2021 – 2022 season. [ 12 ] In January 2020, the CSO confirmed that Muti is béo conclude his âm nhạc directorship of the orchestra at the close of the 2021 – 2022 season. [ 13 ] In September 2021, the CSO announced a revision bự Muti’s contract as its âm nhạc director, with an extension of the scheduled closing date of his tenure lớn the kết thúc of the 2022 – 2023 season. [ 14 ]
End of tenure in Milan
In 2003, there were reports of artistic & programming conflicts at La Scala between musical director và principal conductor Muti và general manager Carlo Fontana. [ 15 ] Muti did not attend the press conference that announced the 2003 – 04 season. The appointment in 2003 of Mauro Meli as La Scala’s artistic director was intended mập calm the conflict between Fontana & Muti. [ 16 ]On 24 February 2005, La Scala governors dismissed Fontana as general manager & named Meli as his successor. [ 17 ] The musicians sided with Fontana against Muti at this point in the dispute, và on 13 March, Muti stated that he would refuse lớn conduct the La Scala orchestra from that point on. [ 18 ] On 16 March 2005, the orchestra và staff of La Scala voted overwhelmingly against Muti in a motion of no-confidence. [ 19 ] Muti was forced phệ cancel a concert prior mập the vote, và some other productions were disrupted at the theater because of continuing rifts with Fontana’s supporters. On 2 April, he resigned from La Scala, citing ” hostility ” from staff members. [ đôi mươi ] [ 21 ]In August 2009, Muti was said lớn be named the next âm nhạc director of the Teatro dell’Opera di Roma, effective December 2010, [ 22 ] but the news given by the mayor ( và therefore president of Opera di Roma ) Gianni Alemanno was not true. Alemanno, instead, announced in October 2011 that Muti accepted an invitation by the Orchestra of Opera di Roma bự become a ” lifetime conductor ” of Opera di Roma. [ 23 ]
On the night of 12 March 2011, Rome’s Teatro dell’Opera staged the first in a series of scheduled performances of Verdi’s opera Nabucco, conducted by Muti. After the end of the chorus “Va, pensiero”, which contains the lyrics “Oh mia patria, sì bella e perduta” (“Oh my country, so beautiful and so lost”), the audience applauded “heartily.” Muti, breaking with opera protocol and the strict conventions of composer Verdi himself, turned to the audience and delivered a small speech, referring to the severe budget cuts announced by the Berlusconi government which would particularly affect the funding of the arts. He spoke of the need to keep culture alive in Italy, prompted, as he later stated, by the belief that “killing culture in a country like Italy is a crime against society. Culture is the spiritual glue that holds a people together.” He then invited the audience to participate in an encore of the “Va, pensiero” chorus – the invitation and the encore also a break from tradition for an opera performance. The opera audience stood up and sang along with the on-stage chorus. Muti recalls that “80 percent of the audience knew the lyrics” and sang along, while “some members of the chorus were in tears.”
On 18 March, the performance of Nabucco was repeated in front of Italian president Giorgio Napolitano and prime minister Silvio Berlusconi. Muti, who had stated that it had been the first time in his life that he conducted chorus and audience together and also the last, on that occasion conducted the Verdi opera in the “orthodox” manner.
Muti is married Khủng Maria Cristina Mazzavillani, the founder & director of the Ravenna Festival. [ 28 ] They have two sons, Domenico và Francesco, & a daughter, Chiara, who is married Khủng the pianist David Fray. [ 29 ]
In 2010, Muti wrote an autobiography. The following year, it was translated and published in English as Riccardo Muti: An Autobiography: First the Music, Then the Words. Music critic John von Rhein of the Chicago Tribune described Muti’s memoir as “fascinating.”
Repertoire & recordings
With the Philadelphia Orchestra, his recordings include the first Beethoven symphony cycle made for compact disc, the symphonies of Brahms và Scriabin, selected works of Tchaikovsky và Prokofiev, as well as less-known works of composers such as Puccini và Busoni .
Muti is considered one of the world’s greatest conductors of the operas of Verdi. He also led a series of annual performances of opera in concerts including the works of Verdi, Puccini, Mozart and Wagner. In 1992, Muti conducted performances of Leoncavallo’s Pagliacci with Luciano Pavarotti. A recording was also made of these performances.
At La Scala, Muti was noted for exploring lesser-known works of the Classical- and early Romantic-era repertory such as Lodoiska by Cherubini and La vestale by Spontini.
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