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date calculator age
you are viết bài, you need Khủng follow general principles phệ ensure that your language is không tính tiền of bias. Here we provide guidelines for talking about age with inclusivity & respect .
Age should be reported as part of the mô tả tìm kiếm of participants in the paper’s Method section. Be specific in providing age ranges, means, & medians. Avoid open-ended definitions such as “ under 18 years ” or “ end 65 years, ” unless referring, for instance, bự broad research study eligibility criteria.
Age is covered in Section 5.3 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition
This guidance has been expanded from the 6th edition.
Terms for different age groups
Different terms are used for individuals of different ages, và these terms are often gendered. Use the terms individuals use Khủng self-describe, whether these are binary gender categories of boy – girl or man – woman or descriptive & possibly nonbinary categories of transgender, genderqueer, agender, or gender-fluid .
- For an individual of any age, appropriate terms are “person,” “individual,” and so on. In general, avoid using “males” and “females” as nouns; instead use “men” and “women” or other age- and gender-appropriate words. “Males” and “females” are appropriate when groups include individuals with a broad age range (e.g., “males” to describe a group that includes both boys and men).
- For an individual aged 12 years and younger, appropriate terms are “infant” (for a very young child), “child,” “girl,” “boy,” “transgender girl,” “transgender boy,” “gender-fluid child,” and so on.
- For an individual aged 13 to 17 years, appropriate terms are “adolescent,” “young person,” “youth,” “young woman,” “young man,” “female adolescent,” “male adolescent,” “agender adolescent,” and so on.
- For an individual aged 18 years and older, appropriate terms are “adult,” “woman,” “man,” “transgender man,” “trans man,” “transgender woman,” “trans woman,” “genderqueer adult,” “cisgender adult,” and so on.
Terms for older adults
Older adults are a subgroup of adults, & the age groups of older adults may be described with adjectives. On first reference phệ a nhóm of older people, be as specific as possible by including the age range, average age, & median age, when available. Terms such as “ older persons, ” “ older people, ” “ older adults, ” “ older patients, ” “ older individuals, ” “ persons 65 years và older, ” & “ the older population ” are preferred. Avoid using terms such as “ seniors, ” “ elderly, ” “ the aged, ” “ aging dependents, ” và similar “ othering ” terms because they connote a stereotype và suggest that members of the nhóm are not part of society but rather a nhóm apart ( see Lundebjerg et al., 2017 ; Sweetland et al., 2017 ). Do not use these stigmatizing terms in your research even if your participants use them phệ refer lớn themselves ( also see guidance regarding disability ). Likewise, avoid negativistic & fatalistic attitudes toward aging, such as age as being an obstacle lớn overcome ( Lindland et al., năm ngoái ). Do not use “ senile ” ; it is an outdated term with no agreed-upon meaning. Use “ dementia ” instead of “ senility ” ; specify the type of dementia when known ( e. g., dementia due lớn Alzheimer’s disease ). Be sure your language conveys that aging is a normal part of the human experience và is separate from disease & disorder .
Gerontologists may use combination terms for older age groups ( e. g., “ young-old, ” “ old-old, ” “ oldest old ” ) ; provide the specific ages of these groups when introducing them in your paper, & use the nhóm names only as adjectives, not as nouns ( i. e., refer bự “ young-old individuals, ” not Khủng “ the young-old ” ). When contrasting older adults with adults of other ages, describe that other age nhóm specifically ( e. g., young adults vs. older adults, middle-aged adults vs. older adults ). You can use decade-specific descriptors if desired ( e. g., octogenarian, centenarian ). Generational descriptors such as “ baby boomers, ” “ Gen X, ” “ millennials, ” “ centennials, ” “ Gen Z, ” và so on should be used only when discussing studies related mập the topic of generations. For more information on biên tập about age, see “ Guidelines for the Evaluation of Dementia & Age-Related Cognitive Change ” ( APA, 2012 c ) và “ Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults ” ( APA, năm trước ).
Examples of bias-free language
The following are examples of bias-free language for age. Both problematic và preferred examples are presented with explanatory comments .
1. Terms for older adults
persons 65 years and older
the older population
Comment: The problematic terms perpetuate stereotypes. “Seniors” and “senior citizens” are not uniformly recognized age groups. Be specific about the age groups when possible.
2. Specifying ages for older adults
men between the ages of 65 and 75
Comment: Use precise language, provide information about age range, mean, and median. This recognizes that older adults are diverse and not a monolithic group.
3. Discussion of social security and Medicare
social security recipients
social security beneficiaries
Medicare recipients (unless study about Medicare specifically)
Medicare beneficiaries (unless study about Medicare specifically)
people who are receiving social security or Medicare benefits and are over the age of 62 (or another age that was included in the study)
people who are receiving social security or Medicare benefits due to a disability
Comment: Social security and Medicare recipients or beneficiaries are not a specific age group because social security can begin at different ages and individuals with certain disabilities may receive social security and/or Medicare benefits.
4. Discussion of dementia
person with dementia
person with dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease
Comment: Do not use language that implies that all older adults are experiencing perceptual or cognitive decline or have health problems, or that all older adults are frail. “Senile” is an outdated term with no agreed-upon meaning.
American Psychological Association. ( 2012 ). Guidelines for the evaluation of dementia & age-related cognitive change. American Psychologist, 67 ( một ), một – 9. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024643
American Psychological Association. ( năm trước ). Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. American Psychologist, 69 ( một ), 34 – 65. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035063
Lindland, E., Fond, M., Haydon, A., và Kendall-Taylor, N. ( năm ngoái ). Gauging aging : Mapping the gaps between expert & public understandings of aging in America. FrameWorks Institute. https://www.frameworksinstitute.org/publication/gauging-aging-mapping-the-gaps-between-expert-and-public-understandings-of-aging-in-america/
Lundebjerg, N. E., Trucil, D. E., Hammond, E. C., và Applegate, W. B. ( 2017 ). When it comes Khủng older adults, language matters : Journal of the American Geriatrics Society adopts modified American Medical Association Style. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65 ( 7 ), 1386 – 1388. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14941
Sweetland, J., Volmert, A., và O’Neil, M. ( 2017 ). Finding the frame : An empirical approach béo reframing aging & ageism. FrameWorks Institute. https://www.frameworksinstitute.org/publication/finding-the-frame-an-empirical-approach-to-reframing-aging-and-ageism/